audio files as well as the multimedia sources he had reviewed in the course of writing. The list follows as:
– Youtube, Slavoj ?i?ek Videos: This channel provides many Lectures and discussions by ?i?ek, but among all, videos like Slavoj ?i?ek (2013) “Karl Marx and Hegel”, Slavoj ?i?ek on “Apocalyptic Times”, Slavoj ?i?ek Vs Cornel West, Slavoj ?i?ek, Signs From The Future, Slavoj ?i?ek: Living in the End Times, Slavoj ?i?ek: A Lacanian Plea for Fundamentalism, Slavoj ?i?ek: Why Only an Atheist Can Believe, Slavoj ?i?ek (2013) Ecology Without Nature, Slavoj ?i?ek (2013) “God in Pain: Inversions of Apocalypse conversation with Jack Miller” were of immense use.
– Youtube: EGS Videos and European Graduate School website, titles including: Slavoj ?i?ek. The Interaction With the Other in Hegel. 2009, Slavoj ?i?ek. The Return To Hegel. 2009, Slavoj ?i?ek. Materialism and Theology. 2007, Slavoj ?i?ek. The Future of Europe. 2009, Judith Butler, Slavoj ?i?ek, Larry Rickels – Psychoanalysis 2006, Slavoj ?i?ek. Plea for Ethical Violence. Lecture. 2004, Slavoj ?i?ek. On Belief and Otherness. 2002, Slavoj ?i?ek. The Reflection of Life in Hegel. 2009, Slavoj ?i?ek. The Big Other and The Event of Subjectivity. 2012, Slavoj ?i?ek. The Buddhist Ethic and the Spirit of Global Capitalism. 2012, Slavoj ?i?ek. Confronting Humanity & The Post-Modern. 2009, Slavoj ?i?ek. Object a and The Function of Ideology. 2012.
IV. Methodology and Approach
در این سایت فقط تکه هایی از این مطلب با شماره بندی انتهای صفحه درج می شود که ممکن است هنگام انتقال از فایل ورد به داخل سایت کلمات به هم بریزد یا شکل ها درج نشود
شما می توانید تکه های دیگری از این مطلب را با جستجو در همین سایت بخوانید
ولی برای دانلود فایل اصلی با فرمت ورد حاوی تمامی قسمت ها با منابع کامل
The researcher is convinced that in order to study the new atmosphere of apocalyptism in 21st century literature, one must begin with a study of some relevant issues. The first question which might arise while studying the issue can be: how ideological is the issue? Therefore, a brief study of the ?i?ekian levels of ideology including 1) Doctrine, 2) Belief, and 3) Ritual seems crucial in order to explore the traces of ideologies at work in McEwan’s novels. The structure of belief in today’s world seems so complicated and crucial to this dissertation. The belief in the issue of apocalyptism is also touched upon by means of the same idea of levels of ideology.
Also, in order to study the structure of belief in characters and people, a study of the people as subjects seems necessary. The ?i?ekian idea of processual subjectivity is applied in this thesis and the characteristics of subject including lack and death drive are comprehensively developed in the subsequent segment of this dissertation. Death drive, it is claimed, can be counted as the preliminary characteristic of human psyche regarding his belief in apocalyptism. Thus, a great portion of this thesis is allocated to such issue.
The limited space of this MA dissertation did not allow the researcher to adopt an ontological framework and touch upon the historical backgrounds of the issue dating back to the initial stages of the civilization on to the Romantic era, and onto the contemporary world. Accepting the ?i?ekian proposal, taken from Karl Marx, that “the anatomy of man is the key to the anatomy of the ape” (?i?ek, Living in the End Times 196), this research has been dedicated to the 21st century apocalyptism by the help of only two works of McEwan.
The death drive is developed to the apocalypse drive counting as one of the last attempts of the researcher to relate the end-time theories of Slavoj ?i?ek to the apocalyptic imagination of Ian McEwan. Finding affinities between the two prominent figures’ beliefs as well as looking for the traces of ?i?ekian-McEwanian apocalyptism in the two novels might help to shed a better light on the modern issue.
In the last segment of the dissertation, the researcher will examine McEwan’s characters’ psyche based on the theory of stages of grief developed by Kübler-Ross. This analysis will also form another approach to analyze McEwan’s apocalyptic and post-apocalyptic character.
?i?ek is a critical theorist working in the traditions of Hegelianism, Marxism and Lacanian psychoanalysis. He has made contributions to political theory, film theory, and theoretical psychoanalysis. He writes on many topics including subjectivity, ideology, capitalism, fundamentalism, racism, tolerance, multiculturalism, human rights, ecology, globalization, the Iraq War, revolution, utopianism, totalitarianism, postmodernism, pop culture, cinema, political theology, and religion.
The spirit of McEwan’s novels require that any analysis on them must bear some tones of psychoanalysis. As a result, the researcher has adopted a ?i?ekian trend of Lacanian psychoanalytic approach to read the novels. Also, it seems impossible to the researcher to extract Marxist ideas of ?i?ek from his psychoanalytical theories. Thus, a combination of psychoanalytical, cultural-materialist and Marxist criticism is adopted in the research. The post-structural Lacanian analysis is also mingled with Hegelian idealist logic to add a compelling weight to the analysis.
V. Definition of Key Terms
The concept of Death Drive (Todestrieb) is initially vaguely introduced to psychoanalysis by Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) in his early works, but in his Beyond the Pleasure Principle (1920), Freud started to elucidate the subject in details. He used the mythological figures Eros and Thantatos to elaborate on his theory. Eros is a “tendency towards cohesion and unity”, whereas Thantatos or death drive “operate[s] in the opposite direction, undoing connections and destroying things” (Evans 33).
After Freud, Jacques Lacan (1901-1981) follows the same direction and locates death drive within the imaginary order manifesting itself in the subject’s desire for “a lost harmony”, which is exposed through “the mother’s breasts” (Evans 33). Lacan initiated a playful perception of the death drive in the 1950s and afterwards. He, then, locates death drive in the symbolic order instead of the imaginary and argues that “the death drive is simply the fundamental tendency of the symbolic order to produce REPETITION” (ibid). He negates the Freudian focus on the biological aspect of the death drive and argues that:
Every drive is virtually a death drive (Ec, 848), because (i) every drive pursues its own extinction, (ii) every drive involves the subject in repetition, and (iii) every drive is an attempt to go beyond the pleasure principle, to the realm of excess JOUISSANCE where enjoyment is experienced as suffering. (Evans 33)
The relation between the drive and JOUISSANCE becomes a key to the Lacanian psychoanalysis later on. Death drive is also closely interconnected with the ideas of lack and desire in Lacanian psychoanalysis.
?i?ek, on the other