d many critics to adopt psychological frameworks in reading his novels. Respectful Iranian critics like Pantea Sokhanvar in her MA dissertation A Psychosocial Study of McEwan’s Novels (in which the effects of the social environment on the psychological statuses of McEwan’s characters are perfectly portrayed), and Dr. Hossein Payandeh in his article “Normal Abnormalities: Depiction of Sado-Masochistic Violence in Ian McEwan’s The Comfort of Strangers” (2006), and his PhD dissertation Waking Nightmares: A Critical Study of Ian McEwan’s Novels (2001), as well as critics like Jennifer L. Fleissner in her Symptomatology and the Novel (2009) have in one or other way adopted the same path of psychology and psychoanalysis to read McEwan. This, while there are deep ideological layers in McEwan’s works that require to be excavated.
In this thesis, the researcher will attempt to analyze the two previously mentioned novels of McEwan mostly in the light of ?i?ekian psychoanalytical ideology. The researcher believes that as ?i?ekian ideology is psychological too, these theories can be best applied on the works of McEwan. The study of the psychological and ideological layers of McEwan’s texts with the help of the end-time theories of ?i?ek might also help better examine and more comprehensively perceive the founding structure, psychological backgrounds and the authenticity of the latest cultural wave of apocalyptism in English literature. And, as a prominent contemporary author canonized in contemporary English literature, one might claim, McEwan can be a suitable representative of for a study of the cultural phenomenon of end-times thought. His dedication to the issue might also add a profound weight to the current study.
?i?ek is also very fond of apocalyptic imagination and his latest books Living in the End Times (2011) and The Year of Dreaming Dangerously (2013) are proof enough for his dedication to the issue of apocalyptic thinking. His Marxist propensity, his outstanding understanding of Lacanian psychoanalysis, his Hegelian tradition and his knowledge of popular culture and art including Cinema, literature, music, and etc. all can be precious guides to get a better understanding of the issue.
And, finally through all these means the researcher might be able to better map the crucial aspects of the apocalyptic business that is overwhelming today’s stage of art and literature. The need for a cultural and literary study of apocalypse at a world plagued by the looming disease of end-times imagination is of supreme importance to the researcher, and studying the skeletal aspects of the recently intensified phenomenon might help better understand the issue.
Both novels chosen in this research are written on the eve of twenty first century (Atonement written in 2001 and Solar in 2011), therefore, the researcher deems, they can best represent the non-fantastic, but a realistic aspect of the apocalyptism. There are no monsters, star wars or werewolves in these two novels, but there are great traces of the ordinary humanistic aspect of the end-time thought. The traumatic and post-traumatic characters of McEwan can also be the best representatives of the situation of man in this apocalyptic or post-apocalyptic world.
This fresh look at the ?i?ekian ideas and McEwan’s novels can also open new ways of interpretation toward both giant figures in literature and culture. A ?i?ekian reading of McEwan’s works with a cultural-psychoanalytical and even political approach can open new windows towards the precious works of the British author.
The researcher assumes that based on what was previously discussed, this thesis can bring about comprehensive answers to the following questions:
1) How does the ?i?ekian perception of ideology work in McEwan’s novels?
2) How does the ?i?ekian version of ideology affect the apocalyptic and post-traumatic characters in Ian McEwan novels?
3) What are the shared believes between the ?i?ekian theory of Living in the End Times and McEwan’s apocalyptic ideas inscribed in his novels?
4) How does the ?i?ekian Death Drive lead to the McEwanian Apocalypse Drive?
III. Review of Literature
McEwan’s two novels, Solar and Atonement, can be considered as the pillars of this thesis. Solar’s contributions to the end-time imagination as well as Atonement’s apocalyptic scenes were the key inspirations behind the whole body of this study. McEwan’s eloquent writing as well as deep understanding of literature and culture inscribed in the two novels can be the best motivation for every critic not to take simplistic looks towards his texts. The idea is also very much indebted to the Joe Wright’s fascinating movie, which can be considered as a model for every truthful and successful adaptation from a novel ever produced.
Living in the End Times (published in 2010) is the main source written by ?i?ek used in this thesis. One might claim this book to be a summarized version of all his previous books harmonized with the most recent socio-political realities of the world. This book helped this research step away from the common apocalyptic beliefs and delve deeper into the heart of the matter in relation to the current global crises. A close reading of this book can help any reader to take a meaningful distance from the ideological apocalyptic belief and to gain a better perception of the philosophy behind the current apocalyptic situation.
Sublime Object of Ideology (1989) can be called the first prominent book ?i?ek has authored. The researcher tried his best to rely on this book due to the fact that considering the prominence of Living in the End Times, one might claim these two main books best represent the turns and twists of ?i?ek’s philosophy. ?i?ek’s ideas are very playful and it might seem impossible to discern a viable version of his theories, but with the help of these two key books, along with other sources, the researcher might claim one can acquire an authentic perception of ?i?ekian theories.
Enjoy Your Symptom!: Jacques Lacan in Hollywood and Out (1992) was another key source to this thesis from which many of the quotations are extracted. Many of the ?i?ekian theories used in this thesis are also indebted to this book. This book is highly regarded in the perceptions of the theories of ideological Rituals, Subjectivity, the ways ideologies are manipulated in the modern era, the idea of pretence and the formation of belief in people’s minds. The use of movies and cartoons in elaborating ?i?ekian theories in this book was also a costly help for the researcher.
?i?ek’s several lectures, interviews, and debates were the best sources for the researcher to facilitate a better perception of ?i?ekian theory, and also to acquire a general and unified understanding out of the philosopher’s contradictory assumptions. The researcher would like to list a number of websites and Youtube Channels providing him with precious video and