schools and universities] but in non-academic [i.e. private] centers” (p. 87). They go on stating that “if you choose to use college students [as research population] in order to save time, effort, and money, you may be sacrificing the generalizability of your results, and the study will have less external validity” (p. 90).
For the reasons stated above, private schools were chosen as the research setting.
In Iranian language schools, teachers are treated as if they had similar psychological backgrounds and consequently, are expected to react in similar manner in all situations. Although educators in pre- and in-service programs tend to promote reflection among all teachers, they fail to inquire as some teachers do not respond adequately in practice. (Akbari, Behzadpoor, & Dadvand, 2010) What is more, novice teachers do not often feel adequately prepared for the challenges they face in their first years in the classroom, novice teachers experiencing an intricate transition from the teacher education institutions to life in real classroom.
One of the objectives of this research was to consider Iranian English teachers’ experience on their reflective practices on the one hand, and in their self-efficacy beliefs. A problem with this model of teacher education, however, is lack of evidence as to its effectiveness; there is not any published piece of research in applied linguistics (and even in mainstream education), to the best of our knowledge, to indicate that teacher experience will have any positive (or negative) effect on teacher’s reflection and teacher efficacy.
Self-efficacy has been associated with students’ own self-efficacy, greater levels of teacher planning and organization, teachers’ willingness to experiment with new methods, their persistence, their becoming less critical of students, and their greater enthusiasm for and commitment to teaching (Knoblauch & Hoy, 2008; Eun & Heining-Boynton, 2007; Barkley, 2006; Milner, 2002; Tschannen-Moran, Hoy, & Hoy, 1998).
Moreover, in the context of ELT in private language schools in Iran, the concept of reflective practice and teacher self-efficacy are relatively novel and very few language schools are incorporating the reflective aspect in their teacher training programs (Sadeghi, 2003).
Additionally, although reflective practice is encouraged in English teacher education programs in the West (Pacheco, 2005) and with less intensity in Iran, research indicating its impact on students or teachers is scarce (Akbari, 2007; Griffiths, 2000). What is more, the way to develop teacher self-efficacy, which has been shown in the literature to be positively effective on students and teachers, has not been paid due attention (Chan, Lau, Nie, Lim, & Hogan, 2008; Tschannen-Moran, Hoy, & Hoy, 1998). Furthermore, teachers’ reflectivity or self-efficacy in the context of ELT in private language schools in Iran has not received enough attention (Sadeghi, 2003). Last but not least the literature seems murky as it tries to find the relation between teacher’s experience and their efficacy beliefs.
Considering the aforementioned the purpose of this research study was to explore the relationship between novice and experienced ELT teachers in Iran, their reflectivity, and self-efficacy.
1.3 Statement of the Research Questions
1. Is there a significant relationship between EFL teachers’ reflection and their self- efficacy?
2. Is there a significant relationship between EFL novice teachers’ reflection and their self- efficacy?
3. Is there a significant relationship between EFL experienced teachers’ reflection and their self- efficacy?
4. Is there any significant relationship among the components of reflection and self-efficacy of EFL teachers?
5. Is there any significant relationship among the components of reflection and self-efficacy of novice EFL teachers?
6. Is there any significant relationship among the components of reflection and self-efficacy of experienced EFL teachers?
7. Is there a significant relationship among reflection and components of self-efficacy of EFL teachers?
8. Is there a significant relationship among reflection and components of self-efficacy of novice EFL teachers?
9. Is there a significant relationship among reflection and components of self-efficacy of experienced EFL teachers?
10. Is there a significant relationship among the components of reflection and the components of self-efficacy of EFL teachers?
11. Is there a significant relationship among the components of reflection and the components of self-efficacy of novice EFL teachers?
12. Is there a significant relationship among the components of reflection and the components of self-efficacy of experienced EFL teachers?
13. Is there any significant difference between the predictability of EFL teacher’s reflection and self-efficacy by their experience?
14. Is there a significant difference between experienced teachers’ self-efficacy and novice teachers’ self-efficacy?
15. Is there a significant difference between experienced teachers’ reflection and novice teachers’ reflection?
1.4 Statement of the Research Hypotheses
H01. There is no significant relationship between EFL teachers’ reflection and their self- efficacy.
H02. There is no significant relationship between EFL novice teachers’ reflection and their self- efficacy.
H03. There is no significant relationship between EFL experienced teachers’ reflection and their self- efficacy.
H04. There is no significant relationship among the components of reflection and self-efficacy of EFL teachers.
H05. There is no significant relationship among the components of reflection and self-efficacy of novice EFL teachers.
H06. There is no significant relationship among the components of reflection and self-efficacy of experienced EFL teachers.
H07. There is no significant relationship among reflection and components of self-efficacy of EFL teachers.
H08. There is no significant relationship among reflection and components of self-efficacy of novice EFL teachers.
H09. There is no significant relationship among reflection and components of self-efficacy of experienced EFL teachers.
H010. There is no significant relationship among the components of reflection and the components of self-efficacy of EFL teachers.
H011. There is no significant relationship among the components of reflection and the components of self-efficacy of novice EFL teachers.
H012. There is no significant relationship among the components of reflection and the components of self-efficacy of experienced EFL teachers.
H013.There is no significant difference between the predictability of EFL teacher’s reflection and self-efficacy by their experience.
H014. There is no significant difference between experienced teachers’ self-efficacy and novice teachers’ self-efficacy.
H015. There is no significant difference between experienced teachers’ reflection and novice teachers’ reflection.
1.5 Definition of the Key Terms
Reflective Teaching
Reflective