se of uselessness. People are motivated to do work for a variety of reasons, only a small subset of which are altruistic. Humans may advance social interest without necessarily being altruistic, just as many generous people may act in a way that does not promote social interest. Adler’s view of the woman and her feeling about sense of happiness is something that depends to her trend as a mankind, he demonstrates that:
It is clear that a social person is much closer to happiness than the isolated person striving for superiority. Individual Psychology has very clearly pointed out that everyone who is deeply unhappy, the neurotic and the desolate person stem from among those who were deprived in their younger years of being able to develop the feeling of community, the courage, the optimism, and the self-confidence that comes directly from the sense of belonging. This sense of belonging that cannot be denied anyone, against which there are no arguments, can only be won by being involved, by cooperating, and experiencing, and by being useful to others. (Adler,The Pattern of Life 52)
Unlike Freud, Adler stresses choice and responsibility, meaning in life, and the striving for success, completion, and perfection. The woman declares her independence from her husband control, and this shows the fight of women in those periods to obtain their rights. When her husband understands about her debt, Nora wants to know whether he does like her for saving their life. Nora according to his idea struggles to obtain her perfect role as a mother, wife, useful social character and the most important one the woman in equal right with her husband. She wants to change their relationships while he investigates the relations:
There are two kind of moral law, two kinds of conscience, one in man and a completely different one in woman. They do not understand each other; but in a matter of practical living the woman is judged by man’s law, as if she were not a woman but a man. (EgilTornqvist, Ibsen: A Doll’s House 1)
Feminism is not a new political force; its origins can be followed back to the abolitionist movement before the Civil War. Fighting to end slavery, women became conscious of their legal disabilities. From these anti-statist roots, the women’s movement eventually divided over such issues as sex, the family, and war. Ibsen in A Doll’s House determines the characteristic of the woman in that society. He explains the movement of woman in the form of drama, from an independency of woman in relation to the society, to masculine society that the laws made by men. Adler along with feminism defines his theories that analyzes the condition of the woman according to her natural right as a human being that could be known useful without any influence of sex.
1.4. Approach and Methodology
The purpose of this research is to examine feminism as a philosophical position with a view of Adlerian theories of Psychoanalytic Feminism regarding Social Interest. The research will be to review and critique the philosophical viewpoints, to compare and contrast their strengths and weaknesses, and then to discuss how and whether they might have relevance to psychodynamic approach and personal psychology. This research will provide the knowledge about the main aspects of Henrik Ibsen’s plays according to Adlerian view and also help those peoples who are linked with professional work in the field of literature.
Social Interest is the name given to social science and philosophical methodology which seeks to interpret the meanings of given social and political contexts and the significance of discrete social and political phenomena and human experience more generally. Intellectual giving two opposite tendencies occurs throughout the culture, on issues such as unwanted pregnancy, abortion rights, environmentalism, sex and race politics. Adlerian reading of this story leads the reader to pay attention to all the aspects of life style in the society that the woman has no right except the housekeeper while she endeavors to alter her life style.
EgilTornqvist states that “The two concepts were certainly exceedingly intertwined when he wrote A Doll’s House- as Nora’s conviction that she is first and foremost a human being indicates the connotation being that as a woman she fights for human rights” (6). Nora informs her husband that she will no longer want his control on her life. When Torvald cited her duties as wife and mother, Nora answered she has other duties.
This Thesis asserts that in Adler’s view the three greatest problems in life that a person must face are, sex, social relations, and work. According to Alfred Adler, men and women are equal because both sexes are born helpless. Biology, in Adler’s opinion, is not absolute destiny to one’s life, but rather a way to shape oneself. He speculated that an individual’s social context and situation had as much to do with his psychological health as the influences of his childhood and his particular sexual drives. Adler also remarks on the way that gender politics pervaedes society that knows feminism as a reaction to masculine domination. To reach the purposes and clarify these cases, the following questions are to be answered:
1. Is social interest inborn or does one has to instill it in people? How could it define in the protagonist?
2. Will she use the pretend experiences to inspire herself to create encouraging and fulfilling reality experiences as a woman?
3. Who does in self-interest try to achieve personal gain? Which form of that, is seen: political power, financial wealth? Can it even be to satisfy her own desires and drives?
4. Does the woman have a psychological health? Who should modify self- destructive behavior?
5. What is her self -perception according to Adler? Is it inferior or superior?
6. In which way does the protagonist as individual interact with society?
7. What is the nature of psychodynamic action in social interest she experiences?
8. To what extent does the individual psychology involve in Ibsen’s process of drama for his view of feminism?
On the basis of these questions, which should be put point by point, naturally and progressively, there is always formed a picture of the woman personality. By this the woman’s errors, though they are certainly not justified, will be made quite intelligible. When mistakes are discovered they could be explained in a psychoanalytical feminism view.
1.5. Review of Literature
There is no doubt that A Doll’s House has long been seen as a turning point in our century’s most important social struggle, the fight against the dehumanizing depression of women, Nora’s final leave away from all her traditional social obligations is the most famous dramatic statement in fictional description of this effort; So in reading responses to and interpretations of the feminist aspects of this play, one frequently comes across statements like the following:
Patriarchy’s socialization of women into